Nope, 432 Hz is not the “frequency of universe”

Let’s try to separate fact from fiction

If you happen to meet some musician who claims that 432 Hz is “the natural frequency of the Universe”, which this frequency has the power of “attract the masses to the music” and cure diseases, first of all, take a look to this article by Assaf Dar Sagol, on

432 Hz seems to be just another number without any special significance over others. Tuning your music to a specific frequency will not unlock cosmic powers, or make your music sound better or worse.

I have already written a post on this subject, and this article could be his ‘reasoned’ conclusion.

I’ll summarize it in broad terms:

The ancient instruments

It is not true that the old instruments uses 432 Hz as base pitch: the term “Hertz “ concept appears only in 1930, and most likely the instruments were arranged with even lower frequencies (before standardization, the pitch of “A” fluctuated heavily between 400 Hz and 460 Hz).

As for evidence, I could not find a single solid evidence for ancient flutes or bowls tuned to 432 Hz. If you find some — please let me know!

Pythagoras’ tuning system

The Pythagora’s “A” was not 432 Hz: Pythagoras has not theorized an absolute tuning, but relative, starting from a selected tone.

Pythagoras’s tuning system was based on cycling perfect fifths. However, cycling fifths will never get you to complete a circle — unless one of the fifths is diminished. In other words, the Pythagorean scale has to be ‘tuned-down’ a little each octave in order to maintain its consistency.

Mozart’s “A”

Mozart did not use 432 Hz for all his music.
The only Mozart’s “A” supplied it was in 1780 and was of 421.6 Hz

Verdi’s “A”

Also Giuseppe Verdi did not use 432 Hz as base pitch for his music: he has expressed a slight preference for 432 Hz, because he was concerned about singers.

Verdi is the only known composer to even hint towards 432 Hz, and it was obviously for completely different reasons than cosmic spirituality.

The frequency of the heart

Furthermore, the 432 Hz are not the frequency of the heart/brain/earth/sun/water: for example the heart frequency ranges approximately from 1 to 2.5 Hz.

Your music would sound better

And finally, your music will not sound better at A=432Hz

Tuning to different pitches has subtle effects on the timbre of acoustic instruments, but makes no difference to electronically generated sounds.

But, actually what changes?

Assaf says:

I do believe that musicians should be able to tune to any base frequency they like, which is why we have decided our next update will include a master tuning setting. After all, i see no reason not to tune to 432 Hz.

Have fun, create and experiment, and don’t let standards hold you back!

In my personal experience on the guitar, the only benefit that i found is a less tension of the strings, which allows a better expressiveness and a more pronounced vibrato.

But this can be accomplished simply using strings with a lower tension!

And no, even at 432Hz my girlfriend still does not loving my music!

References and further reading

30 thoughts on “Nope, 432 Hz is not the “frequency of universe”

  1. It has more to do with numerology and sacred geometry. 432 happens to be much more uniform and “behaves” more elegant than 440, it is divisable in whole numbers, that accord to our time units. It also appears in the universe:

    For example:
    – 432/12 = 36 /12 = 3
    – 432/2/2/2/2 = 27 = moon circulation period
    – 432/60 (our time counting base) = 25.920 (cycle of precession of the earth)
    – 432= 4+3+2 = 9 (special number in numerology, multiplied with any number gives always 9 again as sum of digits again; sum of numbers 1-9 equals 9; number of digits in our base system; lots of mathematical special “games” and coincidences with 9; Nikola Tesla viewed 3,6 and 9 as key to the universe, …
    – 432 is a multiply of 108 (108 is sacred number in hinduism, buddhism; represents scale of sun and earth)
    – The diameter of the sun is 864,000 miles (2 x 432). The diameter of the moon is 2160 miles (432/2)

    You see, the 432 allows for many mathematical and astronomical patterns, that´s why it is considered a sacred number in many religions and ancient civilizations, which were fascinated with these regularities, because they could find “god” in elegant mathematical patterns and formulas. You can´t do all of that with 440.

    1. “The diameter of the sun is 864,000 miles (2 x 432). The diameter of the moon is 2160 miles (432/2)”.

      This is typical pseudoscience drivel. It actually does more to harm your argument for 432 hz tuning than help it.

      The distance of 1 mile is a completely arbitrary human-defined measurement. If you do the same calculations with kilometres you get a completely different result.

      Also, the diameter of the Earth is around 7926 miles, which doesn’t divide neatly by 432 at all.

      Conclusion – you are using units of measure that suit you, and cherry picking celestial bodies that make the numbers work. You’re just seeing what you want to see and your arguments have no merit whatsoever.

  2. Its related to the human voice. Tuning 12-Tet to A4 432hz seems to limit early register shift at the passaggio for the majority of voices. To me tuning to 442-443Hz is vocally the most unnatural for my voice. I need to go up to 449Hz or down to 437Hz with 432-434Hz being the nicest are.

  3. The number 432 might be interesting from a numerological viewpoint. But the length of the second is not really. The length of the second was only developed in the 1600s. Is there any reason that 60 seconds per minute and 60 minutes per hour is a good thing? If 432 is such a great number then why not create a second that is defined as 432 seconds per hour? In other words, looking at 432 and 440 and trying to extract something out of the numerology is flawed because the length of the second is completely arbitrary. The second is defined by the rate of vibration of cesium at ground state, which is 9,192,631,770 Hz. There is nothing sacred about this frequency of the vibration of cesium, it’s just the most constant frequency of things that are easy enough to measure.

    In other words, until the 432 Hz zealots can fully justify the length of a second, they are handwaving.

    The percentage difference between 8 Hz and 7.82 Hz (Schumann resonance to one significant digit or three) is greater than that between 440 Hz and 432 Hz. In other words, they rely on “close enough” that isn’t close enough.

    1. Yes, the second on the clock was developed in the 16th century, but the division of the hour into 60 minutes and of the minute into 60 seconds comes from the Babylonians who used a sexagesimal (counting in 60s) system for mathematics and astronomy. This is also the reason a circle has 360 degrees, each with 60 minutes and each of those has 60 seconds. So it is not completely arbitrary.

      The use of 12 subdivisions for day and night, with 60 for hours and minutes, turns out to be much more useful than (say) 10 and 100 if you want to avoid having to use complicated notations for parts of a day. Twelve is divisible by two, three, four, six and 12 itself – whereas 10 has only three divisers – whole numbers that divide it a whole number of times. Sixty has 12 divisers and because 60 = 5 x 12 it combines the advantages of both 10 and 12. In fact both 12 and 60 share the property that they have more divisers than any number smaller than themselves.

      I don’t think the Schumann resonance has anything to do with it really, but I would just pick 432 Hz over 400 Hz, because it lies in human nature to prefer more regular, elegant things. Music is all about frequency, so why not choose a base frequency that behaves much more elegant, than an alternative one that doesn’t? For me, its not about esoteric stuff, but rather mathematics – and like it is obvious; mathematics is the language that the universe is written in, that’s a fact and not esoteric “handwaving”. So music in 432 Hz would be more of an hommage and appreciation to that, and you already agreed that 432 is more interesting from that viewpoint, so why not prefer it over an random 440 number?
      I think there is a reason and connection here that the ancient civilizations could build something like the Great Pyramid, which we couldn’t do today, let alone without out our technology. They were masters of astrology and numbers, and appreciated the universal language of the universe in it, not denouncing it as esoteric like we do today.

    2. Correct, it’s all based on one second which is artificial anyways and not found in nature as such. So the wise way to find “natural” frequency is to lookup in nature. For example, the practical way would be to take spectrum of most common birds and see what dominant frequency you get from large sample of sinning birds. I never saw this kind of study, maybe somebody will point me in the right direction. I’m conspiracy freak, but I question everything and this subject seems to be another double bottom of conspiracy within conspiracy, to attract money and revenue. I’ll make money too of off it, by making music instruments based on hard tuning of 432 Hz for example I know a guy who makes these instruments with hard tuning on the Water-phones. If somebody are interested, then contact me on anitazofijska at gmail dot com.

    3. the second was originally defined as 1/86400 of a day, 86400 actually fits into those numerical patterns neatly and beautifully – google it 😀
      the caesium definition is very new, comparitively

    1. You have to SPEAK to LEARN. In the end, he is speaking from his reality. The frustration coming out in your writing, is the fact that his reality is out of sync with your own.

      1. Furthermore, he just posted his frustration, not backing up with anything, so he is not aware and will not be aware from where it came from, cause this is no logic so he cannot trace back it. This is the inflammatory language we have to deal with today.

        1. No, Anita. Come back to school and learn how to contextualize and interpret things you read. Do not be a functional analphabet.

  4. I was reading web today for 432 hertz, both English and Russian site.
    It looks like most sites just reprint from one another. The only research was there an article or a book by Gorowitz.
    So here’s a very detailed articled debunking all the myths I found about 432 hz;
    It sounds logical and quite legit to me.
    And it looks like there was a movement nowadays for some reason to spread the “432” word around.
    Maybe it was a joke that some journalist or a blogger pstarted, maybe it was intentional, most probably it’s just a marketing gimmick to attract audience and gain more money.

    If anyone has some solid evidence, research or analysis (besides xyz = 432).. please share it, I would be happy to read.

    1. PROF.DR. D.K.F. MEIJER and Hans J. H Geesink are two high profile proponents of 432 being an important frequency based on the harmonic structure of the universe, and of biological systems. With their analysis of the various biological effects of different frequencies on the health of living things, they’ve come to the understanding that the Pythagorean scale is essentially consistent with the structuring of reality.

  5. Ask Enki, the father of the human race, of humanity, literally, biologically, spiritually and soulfully. He wrote us a note called The Emerald Tablets by Hermes Trismegistus, 3 times great, hence Enki is Thoth is Hermes.

    He wrote it for when we were evolved enough to understand it. The first sentence is “To the children of men”. To both genders. A genetic engineer would know that the father, or in ancient terms, pater, is the pattern maker, the gender generator since mother, mater, material provider only passes on the x chromosome.

    Look up “crop circles, binary, enki: He has made himself known at present and worked out our ongoing marvel of masterpiece magnificence and included all that we would need (every seed has all it needs to be itself) in our dna to be the explorers of existence multi-dimensionally and indefinitely.

    Coz we can 🙂 Thank you Enki, from all of me that I am with eternal gratitude and infinite love.

    You are all masterpiece templates of existence itself. Love and Light to you all.

  6. Interesting reading.
    I have another approach. I ask where it comes from, the foundation? Why?
    What is a frequency? What does it do? What is the common denominator? What is the first frequency that everything is based on? “If you want to understand the mystery of the universe look in direction of frequency, vibration and energy – Nicola Tesla”.
    Those three things that that brilliant man tells us to seek is something. It’s called a note or a tone.
    There are more to this matter than meets the eye at first glance.
    Ask yourself where tuning in 440Hz comes from. I’ve been told it’s a national socialistic, (Nazi), idea brought to USA from Europe. What’s the intention then? The Nazis aren’t famous for their togetherness.
    My experience with my own music is that it both feels and sounds better in 432. It’s also easier to play very fast in 432.
    (All Gregorian chanting is in 432, if you want to incorporate the church into this).
    I’m going out on a limb here….
    I’ve read a comment about Enki and I’ve also traced 432 back to that time period. That’s 9000 years ago at a time when the technique to build the biggest structures ever made on earth where introduced.
    Cesium has nothing, what so ever, to do with it other than it’s a part of nature and vibrates in that pattern, like everything else.
    Ask yourself if there’s a correlation between a second and a frequency.

  7. Second is not 100% artificial. It is about 1/24/60/60 to the angular speed of the Earth. If I take the frequency of Earth, and multiply it by a dozen of 2. Then we should take 435.921 Hz as A. I know, that is ridiculous. lol
    IMO, people ask for 432 Hz, cuz 440 Hz is a little bit too high for them. Just like the British people change from 452 Hz to 440 Hz. They thought the original 452 Hz is too high for their music.

  8. Author clearly does’nt know anything about frequencies and the reason why his guitar makes the sound. LULW

  9. This is an interesting discussion. I have tested the efficacy of the 432 frequency system on my clients (I design custom brainwave entrainment music & frequencies).

    The results are conclusive. 432 Hz and related frequencies are superior to other frequencies in terms of the change they precipitate in my clients.

    Just my view on the matter.

    Discernment is key. Everyone needs to make up their own mind.

  10. I was arbitrarily playing with some of the numbers mentioned by Dr. Grilled Cheese and found that 5,280 (# of feet in a mile) / 12 actually = 440 to bring 432’s discordant relative into the mix.
    However, I would struggle to find more cases of synchronicity with the number 440.

    I consciously choose to consider A 432Hz as a more harmonious choice taking into account the sacred numerology and geometry; the beauty of the mathematics of the universe and how this number is more “in tune” with the “Music of the Spheres”. The Quadrivium considered music as the application of number, or number in time. There is merit to which number is chosen going back thousands of years.
    I humbly request you research some more into this, forget about the conspiracies, and just appreciate the harmony of mathematics in nature and it’s relationship with music. Look into the Factor “9” grid for 432.
    The ancients, Babylonian, Sumerians based their mathematics on a sexegesimal, or base 60, numeric system, which could be counted physically using the twelve knuckles on one hand the five fingers on the other hand. Pythagorean divided the octave into 12 tones and the harmonic fifths.
    The Vedic Yugas, Plato’s Great Year, Egyptian pyramid alignment and incorporated dimensions, alluding to the precesssion of the equinoxes, the 12 signs of the zodiac with 2160/age @ 72 years/1° * 360° = 25,920 (the Great Year). The list goes on and on. Sorry I don’t have that much to say about 440.

  11. Forenote: I have a list of 18 values for ‘A’, which varies from 392.00Hz (contemporary Equal Temperament ‘G’) to as high as 493.88Hz.

    432 Hz was never a standard, until the round-earthers who believe in space travel adopted it.

    Personally, I think that for heavy metal, E=666 would be perfect.

    But, seriously, as a musician, and a folk wind instrument maker, I am fully aware of the fact that even if an instrument is manufactured to A=432, when it is played, and even before it is tuned or warmed up, the environmental factors will dictate that it ceases to resonate in A=432.

    If an orchestra tunes to a hypothetical or real A=432 oboe’s A, then when the oboe starts to play, as it warms up and becomes more humidified, it sharpens in pitch, and so shall soon be playing at A=440 or above. On top of this, some strings drop in pitch after they have been played for a while, so no longer at A=432.

    Even something as simple as a wind chime, or even a triangle, will sharpen or flatten according to environmental factors.

    Realistically, only an electronic instrument can be ‘guaranteed’ to maintain its preset pitch, and although I am not an expert on electronic instruments, I suspect that as they warm up they do not maintain ‘perfect’ programmed pitch.

    I have recently compared some solfeggio ‘pure tone’ recordings, and I can assure you that there may be as much as a whole tone of difference between one and another that are allegedly of the same frequency; e.g. ‘528Hz’ (the ‘Miracle Tone’ (at A=444Hz)); which suggests that even the electronic sound generators are in disagreement.

    As a final point, there was an armored troop carrier called the ‘AFV-432’, which brought nothing but peace and goodness to the world; so there may be something in its numerical designation.

    1. Hi Pete, others, thanks for your input here.

      I have a few observations/questions on this debate and see how quickly it becomes a polarized A=432Hz versus A=440Hz, E=666Hz debate, but setting aside bias for one of the other, could someone explain what and why the optimal pitch would be, perhaps mathematically and musically (in terms of harmonic series)?

      If A=432Hz pitch was never a standard, I’d like to know why the standard of A @ 440Hz was set instead; why was it chosen over other possible options? What makes it “better” than the rest? Perhaps it was a standard adopted to benefit instrument manufacturers?

      Regarding the making of musical instruments, respect to the makers; it’s a true craft. My pops made me a Spanish acoustic/electric guitar and you can see the labor involved.
      I get that the resonance will drift from the original frequency pitch to which it was tuned upon production due to environmental factors, etc., but wouldn’t that be the case for any pitch?

      On another note , frequency (physical, absolute) is the measurement of the # of cycles over time (Hertz = 1 cycle/second), and pitch is the perceptual logarithmic ratio, named as general categories of frequencies in relationship to other frequencies, how is the absolute pitch of A @ 432Hz, 440Hz, or any other frequency for that matter, best determined?
      Does it depend e.g, on the temperament (12-tone, 16-tone, etc) or other factors?

      From what I understand, With regard to a number choice, and please feel free to correct me if I’m off here…

      Frequency = # of cycles/time
      (Hertz, 1 cycle/second)
      Pitch = perception of frequency; it’s a relative category of frequencies, the ratio between them at a power of 2 (2:1 Octave).

      Most of the world seems to measure time by seconds, minutes, hours, days, years, great years in multiples of 12. (12, 60, 360, 4,320, 25,920).

      If frequency can represent periods, intervals, oscillations, wavelengths, vibrations, over time, why would this system of time not factor into determining an absolute frequency/pitch for music (number in time)?
      Would a more synchronized numerical system not be more efficient when it results in more whole numbers in the series which are also related to the unit of measure and that being measured?

      Anyway, love the discussion as a learning experience; keep it coming, and thanks for letting me take up this space.

  12. Hi Daniel,

    A=440Hz seems to have been adopted as an arbitrary standard purely for convenience, which I suspect has something to do with orchestras and their musicians becoming more international, making it expedient for instrument makers to design to a standard, although in practice, no instrument maintains its manufactured or tuned pitch for long (as I explained); and in fact, very few orchestras actually tune to A=440Hz.

    A=440Hz is purely an ISO standard, period. There has never been any suggestion that it is inherently ‘better’ than any other value. In fact, several makers of early music wind instruments offer A=415Hz as an option.

    The posters on here who are spouting pseudo-Pythagorean gibberish could do well to remember that frequencies are a relatively recent discovery, and that the Pythagorean theory of scale construction is not based upon an absolute fundamental pitch.

    The fact is that neither the universe nor any celestial body resonates at an absolute frequency.

    The best evidence that I have found is that A=432Hz is ‘counter-propaganda’ to the (C=)528Hz (i.e. A=444Hz) and solfeggio nonsense. But at least A=444Hz has a historical basis as an American standard for tuning, and was also referred to as ‘French oboe pitch’.

    I hope this clarifies.

  13. “All Gregorian chanting is in 432, if you want to incorporate the church into this.” Rubbish!!!

    Gregorian chant/plainsong is at best based upon the cantors voice, and unless they’re one of these superstar monastery choirs, you’ll find that most monastic choirs are not that well vocally trained.

    The point of Gregorian chant/plainsong is devotion/prayer, not perfection of pitch; and if anything, their slight dissonance is what adds to the somewhat ethereal ‘haunting’ quality of their music. If they were all in perfect pitch, then it would sound somewhat sterile.

    Think of Psychedelic music, where all of the instruments are slightly out of tune with each other, to achieve that ‘trippy’ sound.

    As for the ‘Nazi A=440Hz’ nonsense: does anyone seriously believe that Dr. Goebbels didn’t have higher priorities, such as world domination, than be bothered with redefining the value of A? Does anyone seriously believe that a nation intent on militarisation would go to the effort of remanufacturing every single musical instrument to the new standard? And how would they have achieved this? Evidence: there is none whatsoever.

    Besides, Wagner would just not have sounded right at the new standard pitch.


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